SOLAR PANELS

Saturday, January 30, 2021

AMAZON AFFILIATE MARKETING


All Jeff Bezos worries about equal growing .It's properly there at his yearly documents to stockholders. Every time equals "Time1"as he addresses it.sooner than assuming Amazon has something secret in store for Whole Foods,a safer bet is that it will rely on the growth opportunities that have worked for Amazon in the past. Such opportunities have included: instant gratification, Friction reduction ,and juicy customers .Applied to Whole Foods,you will check out faster,your food will still have the same addictive cornucopia shopping experience that whole Foods has always delivered.

This  Amazon organization system, also named "Amazon Associations" may be the easy choice to monetize the site or journal. Just put up, get quick acceptance ,and place Amazon affiliate links on your site today. When someone makes an Amazon purchase via one of your links,you get the commission it's that simple.

When this Amazon fellow system established at 1998,there weren't more simple, inexpensive choices for building Net entrepreneurs to get wealth online. Amazon's organization system shifted that .The only problem was that making any significant income as an Amazon affiliate required selling a ton of books. Fortunately,as Amazon has expanded its product line ,the ability to make income from Amazon has become easier.
It's no mystery that Amazon constitutes the trailblazer at ebooks and thriving chances for indie writers. But Amazon likewise ran this choice at on-line organization selling. At 1996, Amazon was a small online book retailer run from Jeff Bezos ' garage .With a limited marketing budget , Amazon decided marketing budget , Amazon decided to tap into readers ' love of books to help spread the word. Instead of having an initial outlay of money to buy advertising, Amazon paid people a commission when they referred buying customers to Amazon.This commission was paid after the customer bought , eliminating upfront marketing costs.

As the reality grows progressively digital and interlinked ,marques and marketers exist embracing modern knowledge selling schemes tempt potential clients and improve their sales. This   rising rivalry at this marketing arena is compelling content marketers to be more creative, deliver real - time content based  on behavioural patterns and make it visually engaging. With  advent of innovative technologies such as artificial intelligence , IoT , virtual reality, and mobility, content marketing has reached a whole new level.


Sunday, January 24, 2021

AFFILIATE MARKETING IN 2021

You've likely seen these statistics: B2B commerce organizations exist expending futherer than one period of their yearly plan on this growth, transportation and advancement of knowledge to run job.However ,on average 70% of that content is never used by the sales team.The content the marketing team is producing may be good, but it's not finding its way out into the feild .Take a web-based service such as showpad for example .showpad plugs into a content collaboration service such as Box. This enables the sales person to easily brand and personalise client presentations and proposals while they're on the move.its the sort of tool that will raise your content utilisation ,and thereby ,your ROI. As this reality grows progressively digital and interlinked ,marques and marketers exist embracing modern knowledge selling schemes to tempt potential clients and improve their sales.This rising rivalry at these marketing arena is compelling content marketers to be more creative, deliver real-time content based on behavioural patterns and make it visually engaging.With advent of innovative technologies such as artificial intelligence, loT , virtual reality,and mobility , content marketing has reached a whole new level. It gets turn into more challenging to puch these consumers and take their attention to the selling campaigns.Investigation indicates that 30 minutes or less is how far consumers typically consume absorbing digital marketing content.This is the challenge today's marketers are facing with their changed consumer habits and expectations. Here,he experienced his following huge difference.He saw the Digital selling activity at the commerce instrumentation corporation dealing to jobs,non consumers. Non just cost I learning about Digital Marketing ,I had no idea how the a B2B marketing organisation functioned .why is there a channels team? What on earth is a lead funnel,MQLs SALs?" It was a steep learning curve, The first six months were hard.Learning both new company culture and inherent B2B marketing workflows are something I had to contend with .All these while needing to meet digital leads generation and conversion targets .I managed to learn along the way while hitting my targets." Engineering holds employees employed at some other manners.It provides employees to telecommute to business.It promotes cooperation between coworkers at jobs through instructions, e.g., record communion.It improves communication.It reduces stress by allowing you to schedule important deadlines and meetings on your electronic calender.It also gives employees flexibility to perform work functions on your mobile device.Technology is growing fast, prices are dropping ,and new innovations are being rolled out constantly.If you have n't been consistently looking out for new technology to assist you business ,chances are that you have missed something.For example ,the comfort company implemented video conferencing technology that saved them time and costs while improving relationships and communication.savage public schools discovered the need to totally revamp their technology and have since enjoyed an improved school system. Almost the ten approximately ago there was one huge switch for towards net commerce and so again about five ages ago towards societal media commerce.This's fair had how the internet and social media has changed how people connect and interact with one another .But I caution against solely using the internet and social media for marketing and promoting ones work. Beyerley company realizes that homeowners rely on their passageway to run expeditiously and hold all sorts of environments.It constitutes the investing at itself which does non just assist you,but improves your properties curb appeal.With over 25 years of experience, they can provide you with reliable garage door repair in Oklahoma city.Their main priority is keeping you safe and enhancing your home's curb appeal.In addition,they offer warranties for your peace of mind.

Saturday, January 23, 2021

Fitness and health

Weighting decline happens when this substance equals spending futherer strength at business and metastasis than it constitutes immersing from nutrient or additional foods. It can so have stored stockpiles from lipid or muscle, gradually leading to weight loss.For athletes seeking to improve performance or to meet required weight classification for participation in a sport, it is not uncommon to seek additional weight loss even if they are already at their ideal body weight.Others may be driven to lose weight to achieve an appearance they consider more attractive.However, being underweight is associated with health risks such as difficulty fighting off infection, osteoporosis, decreased muscle strength, trouble regulating body temperature and even increased risk of death. This greatest fast for missing metric equals weighting viewer,agreeding to those experts who ranked these dietings under for AMERICA information . Volumetrics fell at 2nd,and Ass Craig and the vegan diet were third on this overall weight loss ranking list, which takes into account short-term and long-term weight lose scores.Some other diets performed as well or better in our rankings for enabling fast weight loss,but long-term weight loss is more important for your health. Metric deprivation,at this environment of medication, well-being,or personal shape, relates to the decrease of these overall structure body,because of the normal amount of substance,body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass,namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon,and other connective tissue. Weight loss can either occur unintentionally due to malnourishment or an underlying disease or arise from a conscious effort to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state.Unexplained "Weight loss that is not caused by reduction in calorific intake or exercise is called cashexia and may be a symptom of a serious medical condition. International weight loss is commonly referred to as slimming. Body fat , particularly at the stomach country,hands off chemicals that do the body quit responding to the consequences of hormone ,the hormone that prevents this degree of bread in your blood normal.Even though your pancreas works harder to make more insulin,your blood sugar can get too high. A little bit of weight loss can help reverse this effect. If you're more potential to take this status, weighting failure constitutes one of two choices to keep or change it.This different equals reasonable activity-- 30 mins on 5 days a week.If you weight 160 pounds, you could lose just 8-12 of them to get the benefit.If you already have diabetes, losing that weight can help you take less medication ,keep control of your blood sugar , and lower the odds that the condition will cause other health problems. Only 10 additional lbs make 40 lbs of force on the knees and additional lesser torso joints.This will have them out quicker . Excess lipid will likewise induce symptom- when chemicals in your body damage your own tissues over night, including your joints.Losing even a little weight can ease these effects. If you keep it off , you're much less likely to get arthritis later in life. Deliberate metric failure constitutes this decline of overall substance accumulation as the consequence of attempts to better shape and wellbeing ,or to alter attendance through slimming. Metric decline at people who are overweight or obese can reduce health risks, increase fitness , and may delay the onset of diabetes.It could reduce pain and increase movement in people with osteoarthritis of the knee.Weight loss can lead to a reduction in hypertension ,however whether this reduces hypertension harm is unclear. Agreeing to these Dietary Guidelines for Americans those who attain and accomplish the good weighting do then most almost successfully by existing cautious to eat only sufficient calories to satisfy their demands ,and being physically active. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ,healthy individuals seeking 2,000 calories per day.

Saturday, January 16, 2021

EUROPEAN UNION

The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primary in Europe. The Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship The latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU,the Treaty of Lisbon ,came into force in 2009. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system a laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people ,goods, services,and capital within the internal market ,enact legislation in justice and home affairs ,and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries ,and regional development. within the schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union has been established within union but lacks common Fiscal union. EU is composed of 28 member states but only 19 EU member states use the euro currency. The lisbon treaty now contains a clause under Article 50, providing for a member to leave the UE. United Kingdom enacted the result of a membership referendum in june 2016 and is currently negotiating its withdrawal. The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world. EU has a common foreign and security policy,thus developing a coordinated external relations and defence. The membership of EU entails a partial delegation of sovereignty to the institution's in return for representation within those institutions ,a practice often referred to as "pooling of sovereignty". To become a member ,a country must meet the Copenhagen criteria, of the European Council which requires a stable democracy that respects human rights and the rule of law;a functioning market economy ; and the acceptance of the obligations of membership , including EU law. The four countries that are not EU members have partly committed to EU's economy and regulations Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.

Wednesday, January 13, 2021

Globalisation and Multicultural state and it's impact on Foreign policy Making

Majority ofstates today are part of process of globalization and also the meeting pot of globalization and also the meeting pot of different cultures and identities. This has produced entirely different reactions in policy Making foreign and domestic.In India ,for example, we have tremendous amount of diversity in terms of culture, language and ethnicities .people of North eastern part of India , Kashmir , Bengal, Tamil Nadu etc.are having different interest and approach to foreign policymaking in India .So the making of foreign policy decisions cannot be a centralized phenomenon. A good policy decision needs to cater genuine aspirations regarding their culture language and ethnicity. This can be explained best by the recent controversy when Teesta Agreement with Bangladesh was delayed because dissent by the Mamta Bannerji -Chief Minister of West Bengal ,Tamils of TamilNadu have always been a vital component in Indian Foreign policy towards Sri Lanka due to problem of rights of ethnic Tamils there.When the Rajiv Gandhi government sent IPKF to Sri Lanka in 1987 then, in absence of domestic Tamil support ,this policy did not obtain expected results and had to be withdrawn prematurely. Success of a policy depends on consensus and support for policy . Consensus ,coordination and collaboration, wherever it is required among people, political elites, bureaucracy, institutions of foreign policy making and media are vital for success of a foreign policy.This is true for a country like India which is a multiparty parliamentary democracy.In democracy consensus building is stepping stone to origin of every policy.It may delay the process but very much required to crub centrifugal tendencies operating within country and strengthening the federalism. IR can trace its intellectual roots as far back as the fifth century BC. Many in IR continue to be influenced by Thomas Hobbes' views on anarchy,John Locke's impact or IR and Karl Marx changed the study of political philosophy.The ideas of these study of political philosophy. The ideas of these political philosopher can be used to analyze various aspects of current events,such as the causes of and potential solutions to the Syrian civil war.

NATION STATE AS ON ACTOR IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICS

Literally,an actor means "who takes decision in the international politics?"traditionally starting from 1648.Treaty of Westphalia when concept of modern sovereign state was born ,it gave birth emergence to international law .therafter we are witnessing the gradual rise in importance of nation states as primary actor .This is manifestation of realist theory in international politics. But we should not consider modern states as only actor.There are other actors as well viz multilateral organisations multinational organisation, multinational companies, international non-governmental organisations like amnesty international,Human Rights watch etc. More over in our philanthropist approach we should not forget the role of other non-state actors like AI Qaeda and the like in shaping international politics. Non state actors are challenging and competing with state actors toinfluence foreign policy. So this situation of transformation is posing a bigger challenge to the traditional nation state, sovereignty and power.

INTRODUCTION TO THE FOREIGN POLICY ,BIRTH OF NATION STATE

Nation state is nothing but group of people having same culture , history , ethnicity and language and also having their own political space. Every group of people having district language, culture,and ethnically should have their separate territorial space called "Nation State". This definition is based on principle of self-determination,which was popularized by Woodrow Wilson in language of Nations Conference in 1919 while delivering his famous 14 point Formula for peace. According to Woodrow Wilson ,main cause of World War I was denial of state to people having a distinct demand for them based on some identify, culture, language or history .So every people must have option to choose their own state according to principle of self- determination which sounded fair ,just and equitable.However,the time has changed since league of Nations came into existence. Present era is era of globalization and multiculturalism.Globalization has accepted the leading to significant increase in number of migrant persons internationally.This has reduced the,need , demand and political utility of self- determination.Migration is such a strong phenomenon where it is not possible to have a mono-cultural community.Earlier Germany and Hungary were supposed to be mono- culture state but now situation is getting diluted. This trend is further supported by emergence of multicultural society that accepted the societal factor of coexistence of multiple ethnicities without demanding for separate territorial space for each ethnicity. This new trend generated by globalization and milticulturalism is contrary to situation portrayed by principle of self determination.Moreover , national boundaries have been solidified over the years and power of state has increased exponentially in terms of finance and military.Therefore due to unprecedented expansion of state machinery it is practically not very easy for any ethnic group today to force right of self determination if the state is not willing to allow that.

Tuesday, January 12, 2021

OBJECTIVES RESOLUTION

On Dec13,1946 Jawaharlal Nehru moved the historic 'Objectives Resolution' in the Assembly.It laid down the foundamentals and philosophy of the constitutional structure.It read: 1."This Constituent Assembly declares its firm and solemn resolve to proclaim India as an Independent Sovereign Republic and to draw up for her future governance a Constitution: 2. wherein the territories that now comprise British India, the territories that now form the Indian States, and such other parts of India as are outside India and States as well as other territories as are willing to be Constituted into the independent sovereign India,shall be a Union of them all;and 3. wherein the said territories, whether with their present boundaries or with such others as may be determined by the Constituent Assembly and thereafter according to the law of the Constitution ,shall possess and retain the status of autonomous units together with residuary powers and exercise all powers and function s of Government and administration save and except such powers and functions as are vested in or assigned to the Union or as are inherent or implied in the Union or resulting therefrom ;and wherein all power and authority of the Sovereign Independent India,its constituent parts and organs of Government are derived from the people;and

Monday, January 11, 2021

लक्ष्मी

लक्ष्मी ; संस्कृत: लक्ष्मी, : lakṣmī) हिन्दू धर्म की एक प्रमुख देवी हैं। वह भगवान विष्णु की पत्नी हैं। पार्वती और सरस्वती के साथ, वह त्रिदेवियाँ में से एक है और धन, सम्पदा, शान्ति और समृद्धि की देवी मानी जाती हैं। दीपावली के त्योहार में उनकी गणेश सहित पूजा की जाती है। जिनका उल्लेख सबसे पहले ऋग्वेद के श्री सूक्त में मिलता है। गायत्री की कृपा से मिलने वाले वरदानों में एक लक्ष्मी भी है। जिस पर यह अनुग्रह उतरता है, वह दरिद्र, दुर्बल, कृपण, असंतुष्ट एवं पिछड़ेपन से ग्रसित नहीं रहता। स्वच्छता एवं सुव्यवस्था के स्वभाव को भी 'श्री' कहा गया है। यह सद्गुण जहाँ होंगे, वहाँ दरिद्रता, कुरुपता टिक नहीं सकेगी। पदार्थ को मनुष्य के लिए उपयोगी बनाने और उसकी अभीष्ट मात्रा उपलब्ध करने की क्षमता को लक्ष्मी कहते हैं। यों प्रचलन में तो 'लक्ष्मी' शब्द सम्पत्ति के लिए प्रयुक्त होता है, पर वस्तुतः वह चेतना का एक गुण है, जिसके आधार पर निरुपयोगी वस्तुओं को भी उपयोगी बनाया जा सकता है। मात्रा में स्वल्प होते हुए भी उनका भरपूर लाभ सत्प्रयोजनों के लिए उठा लेना एक विशिष्ट कला है। वह जिसे आती है उसे लक्ष्मीवान्, श्रीमान् कहते हैं। शेष अमीर लोगों को धनवान् भर कहा जाता है। गायत्री की एक किरण लक्ष्मी भी है। जो इसे प्राप्त करता है, उसे स्वल्प साधनों में भी अथर् उपयोग की कला आने के कारण सदा सुसम्पन्नों जैसी प्रसन्नता बनी रहती है। श्री, लक्ष्मी के लिए एक सम्मानजनक शब्द, पृथ्वी की मातृभूमि के रूप में सांसारिक क्षेत्र का प्रतिनिधित्व करता है, जिसे पृथ्वी माता के रूप में संदर्भित किया जाता है, और उसे भु देवीऔर श्री देवी के अवतार मानी जाती हैं। जैन धर्म में भी लक्ष्मी एक महत्वपूर्ण देवता हैं और जैन मंदिरों में पाए जाते हैं। लक्ष्मी भी बौद्धों के लिए प्रचुरता और भाग्य की देवी रही हैं, और उन्हें बौद्ध धर्म के सबसे पुराने जीवित स्तूपों और गुफा मंदिरों का प्रतिनिधित्व किया गया था। धन का अधिक मात्रा में संग्रह होने मात्र से किसी को सौभाग्यशाली नहीं कहा जा सकता। सद्बुद्धि के अभाव में वह नशे का काम करती है, जो मनुष्य को अहंकारी, उद्धत, विलासी और दुर्व्यसनी बना देता है। सामान्यतः धन पाकर लोग कृपण, विलासी, अपव्ययी और अहंकारी हो जाते हैं। लक्ष्मी का एक वाहन उलूक माना गया है। उलूक अथार्त् मूखर्ता। कुसंस्कारी व्यक्तियों को अनावश्यक सम्पत्ति मूर्ख ही बनाती है। उनसे दुरुपयोग ही बन पड़ता है और उसके फल स्वरूप वह आहत ही होता है। माता महालक्ष्मी के अनेक रूप है जिस में से उनके आठ स्वरूप जिन को अष्टलक्ष्मी कहते है प्रसिद्ध है लक्ष्मी का अभिषेक दो हाथी करते हैं। वह कमल के आसन पर विराजमान है। कमल कोमलता का प्रतीक है। लक्ष्मी के एक मुख, चार हाथ हैं। वे एक लक्ष्य और चार प्रकृतियों (दूरदर्शिता, दृढ़ संकल्प, श्रमशीलता एवं व्यवस्था शक्ति) के प्रतीक हैं। दो हाथों में कमल-सौन्दयर् और प्रामाणिकता के प्रतीक है। दान मुद्रा से उदारता तथा आशीर्वाद मुद्रा से अभय अनुग्रह का बोध होता है। वाहन-उलूक, निर्भीकता एवं रात्रि में अँधेरे में भी देखने की क्षमता का प्रतीक है। कोमलता और सुंदरता सुव्यवस्था में ही सन्निहित रहती है। कला भी इसी सत्प्रवृत्ति को कहते हैं। लक्ष्मी का एक नाम कमल भी है। इसी को संक्षेप में कला कहते हैं। वस्तुओं को, सम्पदाओं को सुनियोजित रीति से सद्दुश्य के लिए सदुपयोग करना, उसे परिश्रम एवं मनोयोग के साथ नीति और न्याय की मयार्दा में रहकर उपार्जित करना भी अथर्कला के अंतगर्त आता है। उपार्जन अभिवधर्न में कुशल होना श्री तत्त्व के अनुग्रह का पूवार्ध है। उत्तरार्ध वह है जिसमें एक पाई का भी अपव्यय नहीं किया जाता। एक-एक पैसे को सदुद्देश्य के लिए ही खर्च किया जाता है। लक्ष्मी का जल-अभिषेक करने वाले दो गजराजों को परिश्रम और मनोयोग कहते हैं। उनका लक्ष्मी के साथ अविच्छिन्न संबंध है। यह युग्म जहाँ भी रहेगा, वहाँ वैभव की, श्रेय-सहयोग की कमी रहेगी ही नहीं। प्रतिभा के धनी पर सम्पन्नता और सफलता की वर्षा होती है और उन्हें उत्कर्ष के अवसर पग-पग पर उपलब्ध होते हैं। गायत्री के तत्त्वदशर्न एवं साधन क्रम की एक धारा लक्ष्मी है। इसका शिक्षण यह है कि अपने में उस कुशलता की, क्षमता की अभिवृद्धि की जाये, तो कहीं भी रहो, लक्ष्मी के अनुग्रह और अनुदान की कमी नहीं रहेगी। उसके अतिरिक्त गायत्री उपासना की एक धारा 'श्री' साधना है। उसके विधान अपनाने पर चेतना-केन्द्र में प्रसुप्त पड़ी हुई वे क्षमताएँ जागृत होती हैं, जिनके चुम्बकत्व से खिंचता हुआ धन-वैभव उपयुक्त मात्रा में सहज ही एकत्रित होता रहता है। एकत्रित होने पर बुद्धि की देवी सरस्वती उसे संचित नहीं रहने देती, वरन् परमाथर् प्रयोजनों में उसके सदुपयोग की प्रेरणा देती है। लक्ष्मी प्रसन्नता की, उल्लास की, विनोद की देवी है। वह जहाँ रहेगी हँसने-हँसाने का वातावरण बना रहेगा। अस्वच्छता भी दरिद्रता है। सौन्दर्य, स्वच्छता एवं कलात्मक सज्जा का ही दूसरा नाम है। लक्ष्मी सौन्दर्य की देवी है। वह जहाँ रहेगी वहाँ स्वच्छता, प्रसन्नता, सुव्यवस्था, श्रमनिष्ठा एवं मितव्ययिता का वातावरण बना रहेगा। गायत्री की लक्ष्मी धारा का आववाहन करने वाले श्रीवान बनते हैं और उसका आनंद एकाकी न लेकर असंख्यों को लाभान्वित करते हैं।

Sunday, January 10, 2021

WORKING OF THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY

The Constituent Assembly held its first meeting on December,9 1946.The Muslim League boycotted the meeting and insisted on a separate state of Pakistan. The meeting was thus attended by only 211 members.Dr.Sachchidananda Sinha,the oldest member,was elected as the temporary President of the Assembly , following the French practice. Later ,Dr.Rajendra Prasad was elected as the President of the Assembly . Similarly ,both H.C. Mukhaerjee and V.T. Krishnamachari were elected as the Vice-presidents of the Assembly .In other words,the Assembly

Composition of the Constituent Assembly

The Constituent Assembly was constituted in November 1946 under the scheme formulated by the Cabinet Mission plan. The features of the scheme were:- a).The total strength of the Constituent Assembly was to be 389.Of these, 296 seats were to be allotted to British India and 93 seats to the princely states.Out of 296 seats allotted to the British India ,292 members were to be drawn from the eleven governors' provinces and four from the four chief commissioners' provinces ,one from each. b. Each province and princely state were to be allotted seats in proportion to their respective population.Roughly, one seat was to be allotted for every million population. c. Seats allocated to each British province were to be divided among the three principal communities-Muslims, sikhs and general ,in proportion to their population. d. The representatives of each community were to be elected by members of that community in the provincial legislative assembly and voting was to be by the method of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. e. The representatives of princely states were to be nominated by the heads of the heads of the princely states. It is thus that the Constituent Assembly was to be a parrtly elected and partly nominated body.Moreover, the members were to be indirectly elected by the members of the provincial assemblies ,who themselves were elected on a limited franchise. The elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in july -August 1946.The Indian National Congress won 208 seats,the Muslim League 73 seats ,and the small groups and independents got the remaining 15 seats . However ,the 93 seats allotted to the princely states were not filled as they decided to stay away from the Constituent Assembly.

Making of the Constitution

DEMAND FOR A CONSTITUTENT ASSEMBLY It was in 1934 that the idea of a constituent Assembly for India was put forward for the first time by M N Roy, a pioneer of communist movement in India.In 1935 ,the Indian National Congress (INC) ,for the first time, officially demanded a Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution of India.In 1938, Jawaharlal Nehru,on behalf the INC declared that 'the Constitution of free India must be framed, without outside interference, by a Constituent Assembly elected on the basis of adult franchise'. The demand was finally accepted in principle by the British government in what is known as the 'August Offer' of 1940.In 1942,Sir Stafford Cripps,a member of the cabinet ,came to India with a draft proposal of the British government on the framing of an independent Constitution to be adopted after the World War II.The Cripps proposals were rejected by the Muslim League which wanted India to be divided into two autonomous states with two separate Constitute Assemblies.Finally, a Cabinet Mission was sent to India.While it rejected the idea of two Constituent Assemblies, it put forth a scheme for the Constituent Assembly which more or less staisfied the Muslim League.

Friday, January 8, 2021

चार वेद, जानिए किस वेद में क्या है...

वेद दुनिया के प्रथम धर्मग्रंथ है। इसी के आधार पर दुनिया के अन्य मजहबों की उत्पत्ति हुई जिन्होंने वेदों के ज्ञान को अपने अपने तरीके से भिन्न भिन्न भाषा में प्रचारित किया। वेद ईश्वर द्वारा ऋषियों को सुनाए गए ज्ञान पर आधारित है इसीलिए इसे श्रुति कहा गया है। सामान्य भाषा में वेद का अर्थ होता है ज्ञान। वेद पुरातन ज्ञान विज्ञान का अथाह भंडार है। इसमें मानव की हर समस्या का समाधान है। वेदों में ब्रह्म (ईश्वर), देवता, ब्रह्मांड, ज्योतिष, गणित, रसायन, औषधि, प्रकृति, खगोल, भूगोल, धार्मिक नियम, इतिहास, रीति-रिवाज आदि लगभग सभी विषयों से संबंधित ज्ञान भरा पड़ा है। शतपथ ब्राह्मण के श्लोक के अनुसार अग्नि, वायु, आदित्य और अंगिरा ने तपस्या की और ऋग्वेद, यजुर्वेद, सामवेद और अथर्ववेद को प्राप्त किया। प्रथम तीन वेदों को अग्नि, वायु, सूर्य (आदित्य), से जोड़ा जाता है और संभवत: अथर्वदेव को अंगिरा से उत्पन्न माना जाता है। एक ग्रंथ के अनुसार ब्रह्माजी के चारों मुख से वेदों की उत्पत्ति हुई।... वेद सबसे प्राचीनतम पुस्तक हैं इसलिए किसी व्यक्ति या स्थान का नाम वेदों पर से रखा जाना स्वाभाविक है। जैसे आज भी रामायण, महाभारत इत्यादि में आए शब्दों से मनुष्यों और स्थान आदि का नामकरण किया जाता है। वेद मानव सभ्यता के लगभग सबसे पुराने लिखित दस्तावेज हैं। वेदों की 28 हजार पांडुलिपियाँ भारत में पुणे के 'भंडारकर ओरिएंटल रिसर्च इंस्टीट्यूट' में रखी हुई हैं। इनमें से ऋग्वेद की 30 पांडुलिपियाँ बहुत ही महत्वपूर्ण हैं जिन्हें यूनेस्को ने विरासत सूची में शामिल किया है। यूनेस्को ने ऋग्वेद की 1800 से 1500 ई.पू. की 30 पांडुलिपियों को सांस्कृतिक धरोहरों की सूची में शामिल किया है। उल्लेखनीय है कि यूनेस्को की 158 सूची में भारत की महत्वपूर्ण पांडुलिपियों की सूची 38 है। वेदों के उपवेद : ऋग्वेद का आयुर्वेद, यजुर्वेद का धनुर्वेद, सामवेद का गंधर्ववेद और अथर्ववेद का स्थापत्यवेद ये क्रमशः चारों वेदों के उपवेद बतलाए गए हैं। वेद के विभाग चार है: ऋग्वेद, यजुर्वेद, सामवेद और अथर्ववेद। ऋग-स्थिति, यजु-रूपांतरण, साम-गति‍शील और अथर्व-जड़। ऋक को धर्म, यजुः को मोक्ष, साम को काम, अथर्व को अर्थ भी कहा जाता है। इन्ही के आधार पर धर्मशास्त्र, अर्थशास्त्र, कामशास्त्र और मोक्षशास्त्र की रचना हुई। 1.ऋग्वेद : ऋक अर्थात् स्थिति और ज्ञान। ऋग्वेद सबसे पहला वेद है जो पद्यात्मक है। इसके 10 मंडल (अध्याय) में 1028 सूक्त है जिसमें 11 हजार मंत्र हैं। इस वेद की 5 शाखाएं हैं - शाकल्प, वास्कल, अश्वलायन, शांखायन, मंडूकायन। इसमें भौगोलिक स्थिति और देवताओं के आवाहन के मंत्रों के साथ बहुत कुछ है। ऋग्वेद की ऋचाओं में देवताओं की प्रार्थना, स्तुतियां और देवलोक में उनकी स्थिति का वर्णन है। इसमें जल चिकित्सा, वायु चिकित्सा, सौर चिकित्सा, मानस चिकित्सा और हवन द्वारा चिकित्सा आदि की भी जानकारी मिलती है। ऋग्वेद के दसवें मंडल में औषधि सूक्त यानी दवाओं का जिक्रमिलता है। इसमें औषधियों की संख्या 125 के लगभग बताई गई है, जो कि 107 स्थानों पर पाई जाती है। औषधि में सोम का विशेष वर्णन है। ऋग्वेद में च्यवनऋषि को पुनः युवा करने की कथा भी मिलती है। 2.यजुर्वेद : यजुर्वेद का अर्थ : यत् + जु = यजु। यत् का अर्थ होता है गतिशील तथा जु का अर्थ होता है आकाश। इसके अलावा कर्म। श्रेष्ठतम कर्म की प्रेरणा। यजुर्वेद में यज्ञ की विधियां और यज्ञों में प्रयोग किए जाने वाले मंत्र हैं। यज्ञ के अलावा तत्वज्ञान का वर्णन है। तत्व ज्ञान अर्थात रहस्यमयी ज्ञान। ब्रह्माण, आत्मा, ईश्वर और पदार्थ का ज्ञान। यह वेद गद्य मय है। इसमें यज्ञ की असल प्रक्रिया के लिए गद्य मंत्र हैं। इस वेद की दो शाखाएं हैं शुक्ल और कृष्ण। कृष्ण :वैशम्पायन ऋषि का सम्बन्ध कृष्ण से है। कृष्ण की चार शाखाएं हैं। शुक्ल : याज्ञवल्क्य ऋषि का सम्बन्ध शुक्ल से है। शुक्ल की दो शाखाएं हैं। इसमें 40 अध्याय हैं। यजुर्वेद के एक मंत्र में च्ब्रीहिधान्यों का वर्णन प्राप्त होता है। इसके अलावा, दिव्य वैद्य और कृषि विज्ञान का भी विषय इसमें मौजूद है। सामवेद : साम का अर्थ रूपांतरण और संगीत। सौम्यता और उपासना। इस वेद में ऋग्वेद की ऋचाओं का संगीतमय रूप है। सामवेद गीतात्मक यानी गीत के रूप में है। इस वेद को संगीत शास्त्र का मूल माना जाता है। 1824 मंत्रों के इस वेद में 75 मंत्रों को छोड़कर शेष सब मंत्र ऋग्वेद से ही लिए गए हैं।इसमें सविता, अग्नि और इंद्र देवताओं के बारे में जिक्र मिलता है। इसमें मुख्य रूप से 3 शाखाएं हैं, 75 ऋचाएं हैं। अथर्वदेव : थर्व का अर्थ है कंपन और अथर्व का अर्थ अकंपन। ज्ञान से श्रेष्ठ कर्म करते हुए जो परमात्मा की उपासना में लीन रहता है वही अकंप बुद्धि को प्राप्त होकर मोक्ष धारण करता है। इस वेद में रहस्यमयी विद्याओं, जड़ी बूटियों, चमत्कार और आयुर्वेद आदि का जिक्र है। इसके 20 अध्यायों में 5687 मंत्र है। इसके आठ खण्ड हैं जिनमें भेषज वेद और धातु वेद ये दो नाम मिलते हैं।

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